• 字級大小
歐洲聯盟是一個以條約為基礎的獨特制度架構,亦是迄今發展最完整嚴謹的區域性國際組織,其總部設在比利時的布魯塞爾BRUSSEL。 image
  自二次大戰之後,西歐各國為謀求歐洲大陸的和平與發展,嘗試跨越制度與理念上的分歧,推展關稅聯盟、單一市場、共同農業政策,貨幣同盟等歐洲統合運動,逐漸形成今天的歐洲聯盟,並近一步朝政治同盟的理想邁進。
  最初由法國、德國、義大利、荷蘭、比利時與盧森堡等六國於1951年4月在巴黎簽訂了『歐洲煤鋼共同體條約』,為歐盟最早的雛型。1957年六國在羅馬簽署了『歐洲經濟共同體條約』及『歐洲原子能共同體條約』形成歐洲經濟共同體。後於1986年簽署『單一法案』,以補充歐洲經濟共同體規定之不足。1993年的『馬斯垂克條約』將歐洲經濟共同體改稱為歐洲共同體,並形成歐洲聯盟。

  歐洲統合的進程,始終在超國家組織機構體系運作下,輔以政府間合作主義。由於歐洲經濟整合的成功,原有的15個會員國於西元2004年正式接納10個東歐國家成為新會員,在保加利亞與羅馬尼亞於2007年加入後,2013年的7月克羅埃西亞也成為歐盟的一員,歐洲聯盟成為一個對內涵蓋28會員國的最大共同市場。

 

 

 

The EU is a unique economic and political partnership between 28 European countries that together cover much of the continent.

The EU was created in the aftermath of the Second World War. The first steps were to foster economic cooperation: the idea being that countries who trade with one another become economically interdependent and so more likely to avoid conflict. The result was the European Economic Community (EEC), created in 1958, and initially increasing economic cooperation between six countries: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Since then, a huge single market has been created and continues to develop towards its full potential.

 

Reference: http://europa.eu/about-eu/index_en.htm

 
image歐洲聯盟的過去 Structure of the European Union
  由1992年的『馬斯垂克條約』(Treaty of Maastricht)所確立,為一類似希臘神殿式的架構,所以又稱為歐洲聯盟的三個支柱(Three Pillars)。分別以這三個支柱來看歐洲統合的成果:
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第一個支柱—
   1968年7月1日,歐盟實現關稅同盟(Customs union)。1985年6月,歐委會(European Commission)正式提出了關於完成《內部市場白皮書》(Completing the Internal Market: White Paper from the Commission to the European Council),提出在共同體內建立無國界的單一市場。1986年通過歐洲單一法案(Single European Act)。1993年1月1日,歐洲單一市場正式啟動,商品、資金、服務和人員開始在歐盟成員國內部自由流通。
  歐元(EURO)紙幣和硬幣於2002年1月1日正式流通。歐元的出現使歐洲各國的金融市場和股票交易更趨一體化,歐盟在國際金融貨幣體系中直接威脅到美國的地位。
  由1992年的『馬斯垂克條約』(Treaty of Maastricht)所確立,為一類似希臘神殿式的架構,所以又稱為歐洲聯盟的三個支柱(Three Pillars)。分別以這三個支柱來看歐洲統合的成果
 
第二個支柱—
  在共同安全與防衛(The Common Foreign and Security Policy)方面,自1999年科隆(Cologne)會議和赫爾辛基(Helsinki)會議以來,歐盟國家即積極發展獨立的防衛力量。2003年4月底,法、德、盧、比四國決定籌建獨立於北約以外的軍事指揮機構(Political and Security Committee),建立歐盟防務核心(European Union military staff);5月,歐盟宣佈快速反應部隊(rapid reaction force)原則上已具備在緊急情況下採取軍事行動處理危機的能力;6月7日,歐盟參與由法國領導的聯合國(UN)在剛果(Congo)的維和行動(Peace Keeping),這是歐盟首次在不使用北約(NATO)軍事資源的情況下對歐洲以外地區的獨立軍事行動。歐盟並在1992年的馬斯垂克條約中將西歐聯盟(Western European Union)定位為歐洲聯盟的防衛武力。
 

第三個支柱-
  歐盟廢除邊境管制之後,使跨國性及組織性犯罪更易於流通,內部安全問題演變成一個歐洲性問題。一獨立的跨國警察組織-歐洲警政局(European Police Office, EUROPOL)-因而成立,其目的在預防及打擊恐怖主義、毒品交易、非法移民及重大國際犯罪。另外歐盟已決定建立全歐範圍內的恐怖分子數據庫、儘快實施全歐通行的逮捕證、對恐怖嫌疑犯實行全歐共同監控等等。

 

The Treaty on European Union (TEU), signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992, entered into force on 1 November 1993. This Treaty is the result of external and internal events. At external level, the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the outlook of German reunification led to a commitment to reinforce the Community's international position. At internal level, the Member States wished to supplement the progress achieved by the Single European Act with other reforms.

 

The Maastricht Treaty creates the European Union, which consists of three pillars: the European Communities, common foreign and security policy and police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters.

 

The first pillar consists of the European Community, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and Euratom and concerns the domains in which the Member States share their sovereignty via the Community institutions. The process known as the Community method applies in this connection, i.e. a proposal by the European Commission, its adoption by the Council and the European Parliament and the monitoring of compliance with Community law by the Court of Justice.

 

The second pillar establishes common foreign and security policy (CFSP), enshrined in Title V of the Treaty on European Union. This replaces the provisions of the Single European Act and allows Member States to take joint action in the field of foreign policy. This pillar involves an intergovernmental decision-making process which largely relies on unanimity. The Commission and Parliament play a modest role and the Court of Justice has no say in this area.

 

The third pillar concerns cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs (JHA), provided for in Title VI of the Treaty on European Union. The Union is expected to undertake joint action so as to offer European citizens a high level of protection in the area of freedom, security and justice. The decision-making process is also intergovernmental.

 

Reference: http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/treaties_maastricht_en.htm

 

 
image歐盟對外關係 International Relationships of the European Union
  歐盟與世界上大多數國家和地區建立外交關係,並締結經貿合作協定。目前有160多個國家向歐盟派駐了外交使團,歐盟委員會也已在120多個國家及國際組織所在地派駐了代表團。歐盟派出這些代表團目的在於發展歐盟與這些不同國家之間的雙邊關係、宣傳歐盟價值觀、提升歐盟在世界各國的形象,並隨時向布魯塞爾彙報駐在國的最新發展情況。

  近年來,歐盟一方面調整與美國的關係,但在中東及伊拉克重建等問題上與美國拉開距離;另一方面,歐盟加強了與中、俄等國的交流與合作,共同維護國際政治中的多邊主義原則。歐盟還與美、日、俄、加、中等主要夥伴國每年定期舉行一至兩次元首會議,討論雙邊經貿、環境保護、打擊國際犯罪和毒品走私以及人權等問題。
 
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  歐盟一直非常重視與周邊國家的關係,除加強與烏克蘭、白俄羅斯等國家的關係之外,也積極推動與地中海沿岸國家的合作。歐盟的《近鄰外交》旨在維護周邊的安全與穩定,保障自己的切身安全利益。此外,歐盟充分利用聯合國、歐亞會議和歐洲安全和合作組織等各種國際論壇宣傳其主張。  

 

EU foreign and security policy, which has developed gradually over many years, enables the EU to speak and act as one in world affairs. Acting together gives the EU's 28 members far greater clout than they would have if each pursued its own policies.

 

 

EU foreign and security policy seeks to

preserve peace & strengthen international security
promote international cooperation
develop & consolidate
- democracy
- the rule of law
- respect for human rights & fundamental freedoms.

 

 

The EU is a key player on issues ranging from Iran's nuclear programme and stabilising Somalia and the wider Horn of Africa to global warming. Its joint foreign and security policy, designed to resolve conflicts and foster international understanding, is based on diplomacy; trade, humanitarian aid, security and defence often play a complementary role.

 

 

Reference: http://europa.eu/pol/cfsp/index_en.htm#30